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A Dual-Discriminator GAN for Sleep EEG Signal Synthesis A Dual-Discriminator GAN for Sleep EEG Signal Synthesis

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Abstract: The interpretation of one’s overnight sleep process based on EEG signal is of importance for the inspection and treatment of various sleep-related disorders. The automatic sleep staging models have benefits as the assistant computerized tools to release the clinicians from the laborious task of manual sleep stage scoring. However, the issues of data insufficient and class imbalance are common for clinical data. The data problem is crucial to be solved when applying the automatic sleep staging models for real clinics. In this research, the network architecture of GAN (Generative Adversarial Network) is investigated by using one generator and two discriminators for the synthesis task of sleep EEG signals. The data augmentation performance by the dual-discriminator GAN and the sleep stage classification performance by combining with a typical machine learning classifier are evaluated on the sleep recording of subjects. The obtained results showed that the constructed dual-discriminator GAN is effective to generate samples which are closer to the time and frequency characteristics of real sleep EEG signal. It would be a useful method to solve the data problems for the training and optimization of automatic sleep stage classifiers in the field of sleep staging. Keywords: Generative adversarial network; Electroencephalograph; Data augmentation; Sleep staging; Dual-discriminator

EMG-Based Recognition Method of Finger Movement Impairment Level in Post-Stroke Patients Based on Fugl-Meyer Assessment EMG-Based Recognition Method of Finger Movement Impairment Level in Post-Stroke Patients Based on Fugl-Meyer Assessment

Adhe Rahmatullah Sugiharto, Shuhei Tsuchida, I Putu Alit Pawana, Tsutomu Terada, Masahiko Tsukamoto

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Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, Japan

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Vol.8, Issue 1

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425-433

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2432-5422

30-12-2022

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Abstract:  The restoration of finger motor functions is considered difficult during rehabilitation due to the complexity of the underlying muscles. The Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) method is used by doctors to manually assess the level of finger movement impairment. However, there is a risk of evaluation errors due to inherent subjectivity. Therefore, a new, more accurate method must be developed to predict the level of impairment. This study aimed to evaluate the impairment level of finger movement based on the FMA. EMG signals were recorded from four patients while performing seven movements, and feature extraction was performed. SVM and Random Forest were used to classify the level of impairment for each movement. The SVM model obtained good results in the fourth movement, with an accuracy of 91.7% and an F1 score of 0.78.

Keywords: impairment level; finger movement; post-stroke patients; recognition.

EEG Signal Power Prediction Using DEAP Dataset EEG Signal Power Prediction Using DEAP Dataset

Ángel Muñoz-González and Ryota Horie

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Graduate School of Engineering and Science, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Japan

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Volume 8, Issue 1

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370-380

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2432-5422

30-12-2022

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Abstract: When we listen to music, our emotions can change due to changes in our brain response. Because of this, a large number of research projects for classifying the emotional response using brain signals when listening to music through machine learning techniques emerged. On the contrary, to our knowledge, there is no previous research attempting to estimate the dynamic changes in the electroencephalogram (EEG) response under music stimuli through machine learning techniques. Therefore, in this manuscript, we proposed an approach to predict and anticipate changes in the EEG signal under music stimuli. Using the DEAP dataset, we split the EEG response to music stimuli into one-second length frames. After that, we compared the changes in the power of the brain signal of consecutive frames through two one-tailed Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. This test allowed us to label the changes in the second frame as "lower", "similar" or "higher" signal compared to the first frame. Then, we attempted to predict these changes using a Support-Vector Machine (SVM) classifier with stratified 5-fold validation with different input combinations (only music, only brain signal, or a combination of both). Due to the use of multi-label classification with imbalanced data, we measured the results through F1-Scores. Over chance level predictions of the changes of signal power we…

Mixed-Precision Acceleration of Ultrasound Imaging Software Mixed-Precision Acceleration of Ultrasound Imaging Software

Ray Tang

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William P. Clements High School, Sugar Land, TX, U.S.A

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Volume 8, Issue 1

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381-386

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2432-5422

30-12-2022

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Abstract: Software-based ultrasound imaging systems send raw echo data acquired by the ultrasound transducer to a computer for processing and imaging. The computation is...   Read More
Evaluation of 2D and 3D Deep Learning Approaches for Automatic  Segmentation of the Retinal External Limiting Membrane in Spectral Domain  Optical Coherence Tomography Images Evaluation of 2D and 3D Deep Learning Approaches for Automatic Segmentation of the Retinal External Limiting Membrane in Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Images

Xiaofan Xiong , David H Steel, Boguslaw Obara

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School of Computing Newcastle University Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

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Volume 8, Issue 1

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387-391

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2432-5422

30-12-2022

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Abstract: In this work, we compared the performance of 2D and 3D versions of three state-of-the-art deep neural networks on segmenting the retinal external limiting membrane (ELM) using a publicly available image dataset of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans. Based on our results, 3D networks generally outperformed the 2D networks in Dice coefficient, mean surface distance and false positive rate but lagged behind in Hausdorff distance. 3D networks also produce smoother surfaces based on mean surface curvedness.

Keywords: 2D vs. 3D Image Segmentation, Machine Learning, Annotation, External Limiting Membrane, OCT.

A sparse-NTF-based feature space construction method for  automatic sleep stage identification A sparse-NTF-based feature space construction method for automatic sleep stage identification

Meng Yang, Bei Wang, Ruichen Li, Tao Zhang

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Department of Automation, School of Information Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, China

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Volume 8, Issue 1

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392-398

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2432-5422

30-12-2022

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Abstract: Healthy sleep is essential for the normal functioning of the human body and for the maintenance of mental vitality. One’s overnight sleep is usually evaluated by several sleep stages with sleep cycles. Automatic sleep stage identification methods are effective tools for sleep staging where feature extraction is an important procedure affecting the identification performance. In this study, an automatic sleep staging method based on multi-channel EEG signals and its optimized tensor feature space is developed. Several characteristic features are calculated from the two EEG recording channels and constructed as the original tensor feature space. A non-negative tensor factorization method based on sparse improvement is developed to optimize the tensor feature space for sleep staging. A classification model is constructed based on BP neural network and the parameters are estimated by PSO algorithm. Totally 10 overnight sleep recordings were tested. The averaged classification accuracy is about 84%. The developed method can be an assistant computerized tool for sleep staging.

Keywords: Sleep staging; EEG; Non-negative tensor factorization; BP neural network; PSO

Deploying Electronic Health Records In Sports Deploying Electronic Health Records In Sports

Satori Iwamoto, Harrison Chu, Mason Johnstone

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California Northstate University College of Medicine

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Volume 8, Issue 1

Volume and Issue can't be empty

399-401

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2432-5422

30-12-2022

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Abstract: EHR has the advantage of providing and updating information instantaneously at any time and place, giving it a potential advantage for use in sports events and not just in hospital settings.  With this in mind, we address the question: do frontline sports health providers, coaches, and athletes prefer traditional paper charts, or do they prefer a paperless version of the incident report, such as EHR? The research was conducted over three days at an organized outdoor summer sporting event, where medical providers used the EHR (Diya Sports Suite) platform to document the treatment of athletes plus spectators.  Data was collected via post-event survey questionnaires from coaches, providers, and scribes to solicit their feedback on the EHR.  For the medical providers, 86% of them feel that using EHR makes the treatment experience less stressful than traditional paperwork.  Overall, 86% of the providers, 62% of the coaches, and 100% of the scribes prefer a paperless medical record system over the traditional paper recording system.  However, this study was limited by the low number (12 documentation) of patient incidents seen by the medical team and the low number of people surveyed (19 participants). A future direction for using EHR in this sporting event would be to collect enough incidents to run analytics. Studying this data wi…

Brain-Computer Interface for Image Retrieval from EEG Brain-Computer Interface for Image Retrieval from EEG

Kushal Nagarajan, Ashwin Umadi, Nagavishnu Belur Keshav

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PES University, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, India

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Vol.8, Issue 1

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402-409

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2432-5422

30-12-2022

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Abstract: This research is motivated to gift the ability of expression to the speech deprived by building a module that extracts thoughts from the human brain and presents it to the external world as a digital image. This novel approach reconstructs the same images of different colours from the EEG brain waves. Standalone datasets are used to train the model, obtained using the Enobio8 headset. EEG signals are acquired by providing six different shapes of three unique colors as the visual stimuli. After processing these signals, EEG features are extracted using a convolutional Neural Network (CNN). The extracted features alongside noise are passed as an input to conditional Deep Convolutional Generative Adversarial Networks (cDCGANs) and conditional Generative Adversarial Networks (cGANs), which reconstruct the visual stimuli corresponding to the EEG data. The results obtained by the same are recorded and examined. The paper explicitly compares the working and performance of the cGAN and cDCGAN models.

Keywords: EEG, Image reconstruction, Deep Learning, Brain Media, Generative adversarial networks (GANs).

Predicting Oxygen Utilization & Nurse Staffing Needs For SARS-CoV-2 Predicting Oxygen Utilization & Nurse Staffing Needs For SARS-CoV-2

Satori Iwamoto, Bahaar Kaur Muhar, Ashwin Sidhu, Harrison Chu, Michelle Chiu, Heidi Spantzel, Hillary Chu, Norah Zhou, Arnold Spantzel, Eric Zhang, Gary Chu, MD

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California Northstate University College of Medicine, USA

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Vol.8, Issue 1

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410-417

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2432-5422

30-12-2022

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Abstract: Supplemental oxygen is an essential part of in-hospital care for most patients hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. This study seeks to identify hospitalized patients who will require advanced oxygen support (high flow oxygen, CPAP, BiPAP, or mechanical ventilation) within 96 hours of admission using a machine learning model. This information can be useful for hospitals to plan for nurse staffing, as patients will consume more resources and will need more staff assistance.

Data from 302 SARS-CoV-2 patients was used to create a classifier to predict whether or not patients would require advanced oxygen support within 96 hours of admission. Of the 302 cases, 211 were randomly selected to train the model, and 91 were randomly selected for testing. Through a labeled dataset, we performed supervised learning by using a random forest ensemble model which included demographic, clinical comorbidities, vitals, and laboratory values. We used 5-fold cross-validation to evaluate our trained model and employed a majority vote decision across the five trained models in order to produce the final prediction for a given patient. Through the models, we yielded results through sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative pr…

A Research on Force Estimation from EMG with a CNN-based Deep Model A Research on Force Estimation from EMG with a CNN-based Deep Model

Shogo Morita and Nan Bu

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National Institute of Technology, Kumamoto College, Japan

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Vol.8, Issue 1

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418-424

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2432-5422

30-12-2022

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Abstract:  This paper develops data-driven deep model to estimate muscle contraction force from surface electromyography (EMG) signals. The proposed estimation model is based on deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs). Information of EMG signals from both time and frequency domains has been utilized as input data to two CNN branches. Raw EMG signals are directly input into one branch in order to extract time domain characteristics, while frequency information is fed into the other CNN branch. These two branches are summarized at a concatenation layer, which is followed by three full-connected layers to estimate force levels. End point force at hand, considering the dumbbell curl exercises, has been measured using a testing apparatus, which was designed with a single point load cell. The force data is used as training data of the deep CNN EMG-force model. For validation, different structures of the CNN model are examined with an estimation index of coefficient of determination using EMG and force data of nine subjects

Keywords: EMG force estimation, CNN-based model, raw EMG signals, frequency information.

Changes in the Perception of Postoperative Delirium Before and After a  Simulated Experience of Postoperative Delirium in Nursing Students Changes in the Perception of Postoperative Delirium Before and After a Simulated Experience of Postoperative Delirium in Nursing Students

Jumpei Matsuura, Takahiro Kunii, Kouki Teranishi, Hayato Tatsuana, Hiroshi Noborio

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Department of Nursing Nara Gakuen University Nara, Japan

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Vol.7, Issue 2

Volume and Issue can't be empty

321-327

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2432-5422

31-12-2021

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Abstract: The purpose of this study is to use Unity to recreate the hallucinations and auditory hallucinations experienced by patients who develop delirium, and to use VR to reveal the changes in perception of delirium before and after the simulated experience of delirium to nursing college students. We used VR to recreate the ICU at night and created a video of a simulated postoperative delirium experience. The duration is 12 minutes. We set up scenes of cockroaches appearing on the ceiling, the ceiling closing in on them, people in protective clothing, and soldiers attacking at two-minute intervals. Oculus Quest was used as the head-mounted display (HMD) for viewing the VR images. The target participants were 17 students in the second to the fourth year of nursing college. The target students were asked to answer two questions before and after the viewing. The interview content was analyzed by comparing the differences in speaking time, amount of speech and content before and after the VR viewing for each student and by text mining. The results showed that using VR to simulate postoperative delirium can lead to a change in perception from understanding the inner life of patients with postoperative delirium.

Geometric Shape Statistical Analysis of Tibial Plafond  with Ankle Osteoarthritis Geometric Shape Statistical Analysis of Tibial Plafond with Ankle Osteoarthritis

Yuya Oishi , Hiroaki Kurokawa, Shinichi Kosugi, Yasuhito Tanaka, Yuto Ishige, Masataka Yamamoto, Hiroshi Takemura

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Tokyo University of Science, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Japan

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Vol.7, Issue 2

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328-333

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2432-5422

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Abstract: The etiology of ankle osteoarthritis is not enough elucidated, and similar to hip and knee osteoarthritis, the ankle osteoarthritis caused cartilage loss and pain in daily life. However, the ankle osteoarthritis has a worse prognosis than the hip or the knee osteoarthritis. Considering the ankle osteoarthritis skeletal structure is important in selecting the appropriate surgery for the patient. Selecting the appropriate surgery will lead to an improved prognosis. X-ray images and Computed Tomography (CT) scan images are usually used to classify ankle osteoarthritis, but the evaluation of 3D bone structure is difficult and the classification based on two-dimensional measurements of X-ray and CT images may vary among medical doctors. The purpose of this study is to investigate the three-dimensional geometric deformation characteristics of tibial plafond by using statistical analysis. Deformation characteristics were found in high severity ankle osteoarthritis compared with mild group. In particular, there was a statistically significant diffe…

Audio-based Wearable Contexts Recognition System for Apnea Detection Audio-based Wearable Contexts Recognition System for Apnea Detection

Abidah Alfi Maritsa, Ayumi Ohnishi, Tsutomu Terada and Masahiko Tsukamoto

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Kobe University, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Japan

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Vol.7, Issue 2

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334-344

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2432-5422

31-12-2021

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Abstract: Apnea or Sleep Apnea Syndrome is a condition when a person unconsciously stops breathing during a sleeping state for longer than a certain time. Long-term and multiple apnea events induce various impairments. However, apnea detection in hospitals is an intensive and complicated procedure and this causes highly undiagnosed and low awareness of the disease. Existing wearable devices for apnea detections mostly used heartbeat signal patterns and SpO2 levels to detect the disease, however since apnea is a respiratory impairment, it is believed that using a breathing pattern is the most straightforward approach in apnea detection. Several recent studies investigated that swallowing frequency during sleep can increase along with the apnea severity. However, the number of wearable devices using swallowing to detect apnea is very limited. Thus, this study proposes a wearable system to recognize human contexts such as breathing, heartbeat pattern, and swallowing using an audio sensor. Experiments were conducted to compare and obtain the most suitable parameters for the system such as window sizes, types of audio feature values, and classification algorithms. The prototype of the device was built and able to detect breathing, swallowing, heartbeat, oral sounds, and body movement. The result shows the best accuracy of 76.9% using 1s window size and Mel’s Frequency Cepstral Coefficient (MFCC) features in conta…
Evaluation of Markerless Gait Analysis Method Including Out of Camera  Plane Rotate Motion During Gait Evaluation of Markerless Gait Analysis Method Including Out of Camera Plane Rotate Motion During Gait

Yuto ishige, Masataka Yamamoto, Koji Shimatani, Yuya Oishi and Hiroshi Takemura

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Tokyo University of Science, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Japan

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Vol.7, Issue 2

Volume and Issue can't be empty

345-351

The Page Numbers field can't be Empty

2432-5422

31-12-2021

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Abstract: A RGB camera gait analysis system that does not require markers, large space, and preparation can provide valuable information for effective treatment decisions in clinical settings. In this paper, we propose a simple markerless gait analysis method that can measure even if the rotation angle of the foot changes. The proposed method combines OpenPose (OP) and IMU measurement data using a complementary filter as a sensor fusion method to improve the measurement accuracy of the ankle joint angle, which is predicted to be less accurate for gait with a large foot rotation angle. Nine healthy adult males walked at a self-selected comfortable speed in two different foot-progression angle gait conditions. Spatio-temporal parameters and lower limb joint angles in the two gait conditions were measured. The mean absolute error (MAE) and the coefficient of cross-correlation (CCC) were calculated to evaluate the accuracy. The spatio-temporal parameters measured by the proposed method had low MAE compared with a conventional markerless method. The similarity between the changes in the angles of the hip and knee joints and the changes in the angles measured by a three-dimensional motion capture system was found to be very strongly correlated (CCC > 0.7). The MAE of the hip and knee joint angles measured by the proposed method was small com…

Effect of the random forest with recursive feature elimination for breast cancer classification using a WDBC dataset Effect of the random forest with recursive feature elimination for breast cancer classification using a WDBC dataset

Yoshihiro Mitani and Yuki Ono

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National Institute of Technology, Ube College Department of Intelligent System Engineering, Japan

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Vol.7, Issue 2

Volume and Issue can't be empty

352-354

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2432-5422

31-12-2021

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Abstract:  A breast cancer is the most dangerous disease of the death cause among aged 40-55 women. We need a computer aided diagnosis system for breast cancer classification. In the previous study, the random forest which is known as an ensemble learning method was reported to be one of promising classifiers for classifying breast cancers using a Wisconsin Diagnostic Breast Cancer(WDBC) dataset. This paper presents the effect of the random forest with a recursive feature elimination for breast cancer classification on the WDBC dataset, compared to the state of the art ensemble learning techniques, such as XGBoost and LightGBM.

 
 

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